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Of the groups of foreign-born employees who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States, 94.7 per cent speak English. Of the group who were 14 or over, 63.2 per cent speak English. Similarly, both males and females show 'a larger proportion who speak English of the group who were under 14 than of the group who were 14 or over. Age at time of coming to the United States, however, has a considerably greater effect on the extent to which English is spoken by the females than by the males.

The progress made by non-English-speaking races in acquiring the use of the English language after designated periods of residence in the United States is set forth in the following table, which shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race of individual the percentage of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English. Table 140.—Per cent of foreign-born em ployees who speak English, by ser, years in the

United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the l'nited States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

MALE.

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Of the group of foreign-born employees in the United States less than five years, a bare majority speak English. However, the proportion increases with years of residence in the United States until of the group ten years or over 90.1 per cent speak English. Similarly, the English-speaking proportion of both males and females increases with length of residence in this country.

49296° --VOL 11-11-28

PART IV.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN CHICAGO, ILL.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION. Employees for whom information was secured—[Text Table 141 and General

Table 86).

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

A detailed study was made of 95 households in Chicago, the heads of which were engaged in the clothing manufacturing industry. The results of this study, however, appear in the showing for the industry as a whole, and are not shown separately for the city of Chicago. Detailed returns were also obtained for 8,627 individual employees in addition to the households studied, and these data are used as a basis for the survey of the clothing industry in Chicago. The following table shows, by sex, the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

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Table 141.- Employees for whom information was secured, by ser and general nativity

and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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Native-born of native father:
White..

120 136 Negro..

2 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Australia..

2 Austria-Hungary.

243 Belgium.

3 Canada..

4 Denmark.

7 England

8 France. Germany.

275 Ireland.

14 Italy.

9 Netherlands..

3 Norway.

18

16 Russia

101 230 Scotland.

4 Sweden.

21 Switzerland

1

3 Turkey.....

1 Foreign-born, by race: Bohemian and Moravian..

504 352 Bulgarian.....

2 Canadian, French. Canadian, Other

• Less than 0.05 per cent.

:1

Table 141.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race-Continued.

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Foreign-born, by race--Continued.

Croatian.
Danish..
Dutch.
English.
Finnish
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Oiher
Irish..
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian..
Magyar.
Mexican.
Norwegian.
Polish..
Roumanian.
Russian.
Ruthenian..
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak
Slovenian
Swedish.
Syrian.
Austrian (race not specified)
Belgian (race not specified).

Grand total.......
Total native-born of foreign father.
Total native-born..
Total foreign-born..

.6 .3 .1 .5

.1 (a) 5.0

.1 18.0 6. 3

.1 1.8 3.7 6.6

2.0 (a)

7 351

6 1, 106 319

20 317 390 420 119

1 47 898

4.1

.1 12.8 4.0

.2 3. 7 4.5 4.9

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5 10.4

.7 2.8

32 374

27 105

..1 8.2 2.0

.3 1.3 5. 3 3.3 .9 .0 .7 8.2

.6 2.3

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.0 1.0 .5 .6

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4 152 38 61

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31.8 34.8 65. 2

837
3, 252

2,027
2,103
2,375

2.742
3,000
5,627

17.5 20.5 79.5

44.7 47.7 52.3

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration--Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time-Reasons for employing immigrants-[Text Tables 142 and 143 and General Table 87).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

The first employees in the earliest clothing manufacturing establishments in Chicago were Germans, German Hebrews, Bohemians, and a few Americans and Poles. The Bohemians and Poles have been employed in constantly increasing numbers, while the Germans and Americans have dropped out of the industry. To-day more Bohemians are employed than any other one race. About fifteen years ago the Scandinavians began to enter the industry, and within five years had proved such excellent workmen on pants and vests that they were among all employees first choice for work of this kind, and they constitute a large and important factor of the clothing industry at the present time. Although the Italians, both North and South, have been employed in the contract manufacture of clothing in the city for twenty-five years or more, it is only within the past seven or eight years that they have been employed in any numbers in the factories. The Russian Hebrews have been employed within the past ten years. Their numbers are rapidly increasing, and it is noteworthy that they send into the clothing trades a much higher proportion of men than any other race. Lithuanians have entered the industry within the last five or six years.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES.

The character of immigration to the industry in Chicago during recent and past years may readily be seen from the following table, which shows by sex and race the per cent of foreign-born employees who have been in the United States each specified number of years.

The period of residence of employees in the United States and in the clothing industry in Chicago are not necessarily the same, but during all periods they approximate each other, and during recent years have been practically identical for the reason that immigrants direct from Europe have entered the industry.

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