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Table 134.-Per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife in the United States and

per cent who report wife abroad, by race of husband.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 40 or more husbands reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign

born.)

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Of the total number of foreign-born married employees included in the above table, 88.2 per cent report wife in the United States and 11.8 per cent report wife abroad, but slight differences being exhibited between the married males of the Lithuanian and Russian Hebrew races.

The extent to which the married employees who came to this country without their wives and families send for them after designated periods of residence is next considered. The statement which immediately follows shows, by race of husband and by years husband has been in the United States, the per cent of foreign-born husbands who report wife abroad.

Of the Russian Hebrews who have been in the United States less than five years, 35.7 per cent report wife abroad. In the succeeding period of residence, 5 to 9 years, however, only 3.2 per cent of the Russian Hebrews report wife abroad. Of 'the group who have been in this country at least ten years only 1.1 per cent report wife abroad.

VISITS ABROAD.

The tendency on the part of the foreign-born operatives to visit their native lands is set forth in the following table, which shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race of individual, the visits abroad made by foreign-born employees. TABLE 135.- Visits abroad made by foreign-born employees, by sex, years in the United

States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the United States is meant vears since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

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Of all foreign-born employees only 5.9 per cent report one or more visits abroad. The proportion of females reporting one or more visits abroad is slightly higher than the proportion of the males. In comparing the visits abroad, by years foreign-born employees have been in the United States, it will be seen that the largest proportion who have visited abroad is of the group who have been in this country five to nine years. There is only a negligible difference in the proportions who have visited abroad of the groups here under five years or ten years or over. Males show a decreasing proportion reporting visits abroad as years of residence in the United States increase. Of the females, however, the largest proportion reporting visits abroad is in the group who have been here five to nine years; the smallest proportion so reporting is of the group who have been here less than five years.

AGE CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES.

The age characteristics of the immigrant labor supply are considered in the table next submitted. This table shows by sex and general nativity and race of individual the percentage of employees within each specified age group. Table 136.Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity

and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.

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Native-born of native

father, White Native-born of foreign

father, by country of birth of father:

Germany

Russia..
Foreign-born, by race:

Hebrew, Russian.
Italian, North.
Italian, South
Lithuanian..

Grand total...
Total native-born of for-

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eign lather... Total native-born, Total foreign-born.

172
237
834

1.2 18.6
.8 23.6
.0 12.6

20.3
22.8
20.5

14.0
15.6
18.9

7.6
7.6
13.3

23.8
18.6

12.8
9.3
8.3

1.7 1.7 3.2

23. 1

Table 136.—Per cent of employees within each age group, by sex and general nativity

and race-Continued.

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The majority of the total number of employees are from 14 to 24 years old, a larger proportion being from 14 to 19 than from 20 to 24. The whites native-born of native father and the native-born of foreign father each show a proportion 14 to 19 years of age, exceeding that in any other age group. The native-born of Russian father, it should be noted, show 64.4 per cent from 14 to 19 years of age. The female employees are younger than the males. The greater proportion of the former are from 14 to 19 years of age. The male employees are distributed most largely in the age groups 35 to 44, 20 to 24, and 25 to 29. The majority of the male employees are 25 years of age

or over,

CHAPTER VI.

GENERAL PROGRESS AND ASSIMILATION.

Citizenship-Ability to speak English-Text Tables 137 to 140 and General Tables

83 to 85).

CITIZENSHIP.

The extent to which the foreign-born employees are manifesting an interest in political affairs and attaining citizenship may be seen from the following table, which shows by race the present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States five years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming:

Table 137.- Present political condition of foreign-born male employees who have been in

the United States 5 years or over and who were 21 years of age or over at time of coming, by race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)
[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States.)

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Of the total number of foreign-born male employees who have been in the United States at least five years and who were 21 years of age or over when they came 45.5 per cent are fully naturalized and 19.8 per cent have first papers only.

ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH.

The table next submitted shows, by sex and race of individual, the percentage of foreign-born employees of non-English-speaking races who were able to speak English.

TABLE 138.–Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, how

ever, is for all non-English-speaking races.)

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Of the total number of foreign-born employees 69.5. per cent speak English. While the greater proportion of every specified race speak English, it is more commonly spoken by the Russian Hebrews than the other specified races and less commonly by the South Italians. Every race shows a larger proportion of males who speak English than of females.

A comparison of the advancement of immigrant employees of nonEnglish-speaking races in the ability to speak English is made in the table below according to age at time of arrival in the United States. The presentation is according to sex, age at time of coming to the United States, and race of individual:

Table 139.—Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time of

coming to the United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[This table includes only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total,

however, is ior all non-English-speaking races.)

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Hebrew, Russian
Lithuanian..

543
208

96.4
85.7

66.4
63.9

72.6
66.8

Total.

1,235

94.7

63. 2

69.5

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