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Table 122.—Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, age at time

of coming to the United States, and race--Continued.

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The foregoing table shows that of 5,992 persons reporting, 90.9 per cer of those who were under 14 years of age at time of coming to the United States can speak English, while of those who were 14 or over, only 50.5 per cent are so reported. All of the Russians, 98.7 per cent of the Hebrews other than Russian, and 94.2 per cent of the Russian Hebrews, who came here before they were 14 years of age, speak the English language, while only 84.6 per cent of the South Italians and 82.9 per cent of the North Italians speak English. Of those who came here after they were 14 years of age, a decidedly less proportion are able to speak English. In this group the Hebrew's other than Russian show the greatest ability to speak English, 72.8 per cent of them being thus reported; next in order follow the Russian Hebrews and the Russians, while the North and South Italians show the lowest proportions.

The North Italian males who came under 14 years of age compare favorably with other races, but the females rank very low. On the other hand, the South Italian males make the least creditable showing in this classification, while the South Italian females report a figure slightly less than the males. Among those who were 14 years of age at time of arrival, the North Italian males show a considerably better proportion than do the South Italians, and the difference between the females of these two races is, though slight, also in favor of the North Italians.

The progress made by employees of foreign birth and of nonEnglish-speaking races in acquiring an ability to speak English is set forth in the table next presented. It shows by sex, years in the United States, and race the percentage of foreign-born employees who speak English.

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Table 123.-Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by ser, years in the

United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (By years in the l'nited States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

MALE.

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Of the 5,992 foreign-born employees for whom information was secured, 56.9 per cent speak English. Of those who have been

. in the United States under five years, 34.2 per cent speak English. Of those with a residence of from five to nine years and ten years or over, 61.1 per cent in the group first mentioned and 77.2 per cent in the latter group are able to speak English. The Hebrews other than Russian show 59 per cent who can speak English, Russian Hebrews 49 per cent, and Russians 44.1 per cent who can speak English in the group of employees who have been in the United States under five years. In this group only 17.7 per cent each of the North and South Italian employees can speak English. In the group of employees with a residence of from five to nine years, Hebrews other than Russian show the highest percentage and the South Italians the lowest percentage who can speak English. Among employees who have been in the United States ten years or over, the Russians show the highest percentage and the South Italians the lowest percentage who can speak English, and in the totals, irrespective of length of residence, Hebrews other than Russian show the highest percentage and the South Italians the lowest percentage who can speak English. In the groups who have been in the United States under five years, ten years or over, and in the total, irrespective of length of residence, males show a higher percentage than females who can speak English. Among employees with a residence of from five to nine years, a greater proportion of females than of males can speak English.

PART III.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN BALTIMORE, MD.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION. Employees for whom information was secured--Text Table 124 and General Table 70].

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED. About 405 households, the heads of which were engaged in the clothing industry, were studied in detail in Baltimore, Md., but the returns secured have been tabulated with those secured from the household study in other localities in the general survey of the industry and have not been separately tabulated for Baltimore. Detailed information, however, was secured for 1,938 employees in Baltimore and is used as the basis for the following statistical survey of the clothing industry in the city. The table submitted below shows, by sex of individual, the number and percentage of employees of each race for whom information was secured. Table 124.--Employees for whom information was secured, by ser and general nativity

and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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Native-born of native father:

White..

Negro...
Native-born of foreign father, by country
of birth of father:

Australia.
Austria-Hungary
Denmark.
England..
France
Germany
Ireland.
Italy:
Russia..
Servia.

Turkey
Foreign-born, by rke:

Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian.
English.
Finnish.
German.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian..
Mar..
Montenegrin.
Polish
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian.
Scotch..
Servian.
Slovak
Austrian (ruce not specified).

Grand total....
Total native-born of foreign father..
Total native-born.
Total foreim-bom...

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