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Table 94.—Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by ser, age at time of

coming to the United States, and race-Continued.

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In the preceding table persons who were under 14 years of age at the time of coming to the United States show a much greater proportion able to speak English than those who were 14 or over at the time of coming to this country. Males show a higher percentage for each period than females. Magyars report 100 per cent of those under 14 at the time of coming to the United States, and comparatively a large percentage of those who were over 14, able to speak English. Among those who were under 14 at the time of coming to this country the Lithuanians report the lowest percentage able to speak English, and South Italians report the lowest percentage able to speak English for those who were 14 years of age or over at the time of coming to the United States. The Germans report the highest total percentage able to speak English.

The progress made by employees of non-English-speaking races in acquiring the ability to speak English after designated periods of residence in the country is set forth in the table following, which shows, by sex, years in the United States, and race, the per cent of foreignborn employees who speak English.

Table 95.-- Per cent of foreign-born employees who speak English, by sex, years in the

United States, and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. This table includes

only non-English-speaking races with 200 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all nonEnglish-speaking races.)

MALE.

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The preceding table shows that a larger percentage of the males who have been in the United States less than five years are able to speak English than is reported by the females for this period, while the females report slightly larger percentages for the periods from five to nine years and ten years or over. Among those who have been here less than five years, Hebrews other than Russian show the largest percentage of either sex able to speak English, Bohemians and Moravians showing the smallest percentage of the males in this period, and the South Italians and Lithuanians show the smallest percentage for the females.

48296°—Vol 11-11-24

Germans report the largest percentage of males and Russians the largest per cent of females in the United States five to nine years who are able to speak English, the smallest percentages being shown by the Bohemians and Moravians for the males and by the North Italians, for the females. Germans also report the largest percentage of males who have been here ten years or over able to speak English, and Germans and Russian Hebrews each with 95.5 per cent, the highest per cent of females in this period able to speak English, the smallest percentage for each sex in this period being shown by the South Italians. The Germans show the highest total percentage able to speak English, and South Italians show the smallest percentage.

PART 11.—CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN NEW YORK CITY.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Extent of the industry in New York City-Employees for whom information was

secured – [Text Tables 96 and 97 and General Table 54).

EXTENT OF THE INDUSTRY IN NEW YORK CITY.

The factory-inspection law of the State of New York provides for the inspection of all tailoring and dressmaking establishments. The number of establishments inspected in New York City in the year 1907 and the composition of the working force are shown by the following table:

Table 96.-Number of establishments inspected and number and per cent of employees of

each ser in the clothing industry in New York City, 1907, by de partment. (Compiled from Report of the New York State Bureau of Factory Inspection, 1907, Vol. II, pp. 190-191.)

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It is of course possible that some establishments in the city escaped the attention of and were not visited by the inspectors, but the proportion of places not visited is doubtless very small

. The data presented in the table may, therefore, be regarded as a fair indication of the extent of the industry in the city. Of the 7,291 establishments inspected 4,033 were tailoring and 3,258 dressmaking establishments. The maximum number of employees during the year 1907 was 71,557 for the tailoring and 108,372 for the dressmaking establishments, a total of 179,929 employees, but at the time of inspection there were only 63,020 employees in tailoring and 86,733 in dressmaking establishments. It will be noted that while the tailoring establishments exceed the dressmaking establishments in number, the latter employ a considerably larger working force than do the former. There seems, also, to be a considerable variation in the number of employees in the course of the year, both in tailoring and in dressmaking.

At the time of inspection 58.7 per cent of the employees in all establishments were males. In the tailoring establishments the males considerably outnumber the females, and in the dressmaking establishments the females slightly outnumber the males.

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED,

A detailed study was made of 406 households in New York City, the heads of which were employed in the manufacture of clothing. The data thus obtained, however, were not tabulated separately for New York, but are included in the tables for the industry as a whole, along with the returns secured for households in Baltimore, Chicago, and Rochester, N. Y. In addition to the households studied, detailed information was also secured for 7,258 individual employees in New York City, and this information is used as the basis for the following general survey of the industry in the city.

The following table shows by sex the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured: Table 97.-Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.

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Native-born of native father:
White..

129

55 Negro. Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Austria-Hungary.

30 Belgium.. Denmark.

1 England.

6 France..

3

5 Germany

205

126 Ireland.

30 Italy

16

57 Netherlands.

1 Norway.

1 Roumania.

1 Russia..

68

30 Scotland.

2

5
Sweden.
Switzerland.

1
Turkey...
Foreign-born, by race:
Bohemian and Moravian.

3
Canadian, French..
Canadian, Other

3 Croatian..

2 Cuban..

1 Danish. English

15 Finnish. French.

7 German.

123

29 Greek.

7 Hebrew, Russian.

1. 412

439 Hebrew, Other

750

227 Irish...

17

19 Italian, North.

242

349 Italian, South

1,00

925 Lithuanian...

97

23 Magyar...

74

35 Montenegrin

1 Norwegian..

3 Less than 0.05 per cent.

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