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The foregoing table shows that 72.2 per cent of the total number of employees from whom information was secured are of foreignbirth, 22.4 per cent are native-born of foreign father, 5.3 per cent are native-born whites of native father, and 0.1 per cent are negroes who are native-born of native father. Of the 3 localities studied, the highest per cent of foreign-born are employed in New York City, 87.3 per cent of persons employed in this locality being of foreignbirth as compared with 68.8 per cent in Baltimore and 65.2 per cent in Chicago. The greatest proportion of native-born of foreign father, which is 31.8 per cent, are employed in Chicago as compared with 20.9 per cent in Baltimore and 10.2 per cent in New York City. Whites, native-born of native father, show their largest proportions in Baltimore, where 10.1 per cent are employed as contrasted with 3 per cent in Chicago and 2.5 per cent in New York City. Very few negroes are employed in this industry, considerably less than 1 per cent being engaged in the manufacturing of clothing in Baltimore and New York City.

The totals show that Russian Hebrews and South Italians have a greater proportion of persons engaged in clothing manufacturing than any of the other races shown in the table. Russian Hebrews show 30.2 per cent in Baltimore, 25.5 per cent in New York City, and 12.8 per cent in Chicago in the clothing industry. South Italians show a high percentage in New York City and smaller proportions in Baltimore and Chicago. Of the males for whom information was secured, 82.5 per cent were foreign-born, 13.7 per cent were native-born of foreign father, 3.7 per cent were native-born whites of native father, and 0.1 per cent were negroes. South Italians and Russian Hebrews show the highest per cent of males in the clothing industry, Russian Hebrews showing their greatest proportion in Baltimore, and South Italians their highest in New York City. Of the females from whom information was secured, 59.9 per cent were foreign-born, 32.9 per cent were native-born of foreign father, and 7.1 per cent were native-born whites of native father. Of the 3 localities, New York City shows the highest per cent of foreign-born females employed in the clothing industry, followed by Baltimore and Chicago in much smaller proportions.

THE PREPARATION OF THE REPORT.

In preparing the data for publication the statistical data secured from the household study and for individual employees in all localities has been combined into tabulations which are representative of the industry as a whole without any territorial division. In addition to this exhibit, a general survey of the industry, based on the employees for whom information was obtained in Chicago, New York City, and Baltimore, has been prepared in order to show whatever difference in conditions which may exist in the East as compared with the Middle West. The divisions of the report are there

. fore as follows:

Part I. General survey of the industry.
Part II. The industry in New York City.
Part III. The industry in Baltimore.
Part IV. The industry in Chicago.

TABLE 7. Race of employees for whom information was secured, by locality and by sex;

per cent distribution-Continued.

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White........

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Native-born of native father:

Negro..
Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of
father:

Australia.
Austria-Hungary.
Belgium...
Canada.
Denmark.
England.
France.
Germany
Ireland
Italy.
Netherlands.
Norway.
Roumania.
Russia.
Scotland.
Servia..
Sweden.
Switzerland
Turkey

Wales.
Foreign-born, by race:

Armenian..
Bohemian and Moravian.
Bulgarian..
Canadian, French
Canadian, Other
Croatian
Cuban..
Danish.
Dutch.
English.
Finnish.
French.
German.
Greek.
Hebrew, Russian.
Hebrew, Other
Irish
Italian, North.
Italian, South.
Lithuanian.
Magyar..
Mexican.
Montenegrin.
Norwegian.
Polish..
Portuguese.
Roumanian
Russian..
Ruthenian.
Scotch.
Servian.
Slovak.
Slovenian
Spanish.
Swedish.
Syrian..
Welsh.
Australian (race not specified).
Austrian (race not specified)
Belgian (race not specified).
Swiss (race not specified).

Grand total........
Total native-born of foreign father
Total native-born...
Total foreign-born..

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.2 25.5 13.5

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.4 5.7 14.4 4.1 1.2

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20.9
31.2
68.8

31.8
34.8
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10.2 12.7 87.3

22.4 27.8 72. 2

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

The foregoing table shows that 72.2 per cent of the total number of employees from whom information was secured are of foreignbirth, 22.4 per cent are native-born of foreign father, 5.3 per cent are native-born whites of native father, and 0.1 per cent are negroes who are native-born of native father. Of the 3 localities studied, the highest per cent of foreign-born are employed in New York City, 87.3 per cent of persons employed in this locality being of foreignbirth as compared with 68.8 per cent in Baltimore and 65.2 per cent in Chicago. The greatest proportion of native-born of foreign father, which is 31.8 per cent, are employed in Chicago as compared with 20.9 per cent in Baltimore and 10.2 per cent in New York City. Whites, native-born of native father, show their largest proportions in Baltimore, where 10.1 per cent are employed as contrasted with 3 per cent in Chicago and 2.5 per cent in New York City. Very few negroes are employed in this industry, considerably less than 1 per cent being engaged in the manufacturing of clothing in Baltimore and New York City.

The totals show that Russian Hebrews and South Italians have a greater proportion of persons engaged in clothing manufacturing than any of the other races shown in the table. Russian Hebrews show 30.2 per cent in Baltimore, 25.5 per cent in New York City, and 12.8 per cent in Chicago in the clothing industry. South Italians show a high percentage in New York City and smaller proportions in Baltimore and Chicago. Of the males for whom information was secured, 82.5 per cent were foreign-born, 13.7 per cent were native-born of foreign father, 3.7 per cent were native-born whites of native father, and 0.1 per cent were negroes. South Italians and Russian Hebrews show the highest per cent of males in the clothing industry, Russian Hebrews showing their greatest proportion in Baltimore, and South Italians their highest in New York City. Of the females from whom information was secured, 59.9 per cent were foreign-born, 32.9 per cent were native-born of foreign father, and 7.1 per cent were native-born whites of native father. Of the 3 localities, New York City shows the highest per cent of foreign-born females employed in the clothing industry, followed by Baltimore and Chicago in much smaller proportions.

THE PREPARATION OF THE REPORT.

In preparing the data for publication the statistical data secured from the household study and for individual employees in all localities has been combined into tabulations which are representative of the industry as a whole without any territorial division. In addition to this exhibit, a general survey of the industry, based on the employees for whom information was obtained in Chicago, New York City, and Baltimore, has been prepared in order to show whatever difference in conditions which may exist in the East as compared with the Middle West. The divisions of the report are therefore as follows:

Part I. General survey of the industry.
Part II. The industry in New York City.
Part III. The industry in Baltimore.
Part IV. The industry in Chicago.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS. History of immigration--Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees and members of their households-Racial classification of employees at the present time-[Text Tables 8 to 13 and General Tables 4 and 5).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION. A brief statement concerning the racial changes that have occurred among the employees of the clothing industry in Chicago, New York, and Baltimore is presented below. The history of immigration to these large centers of the industry may be considered as representative of racial substitutions in the industry as a whole.

BALTIMORE.

From the beginning until as late as 1890 Germans were almost exclusively employed in shops and by establishments engaged in the manufacturing of clothing. During the past twenty years, however, a very large number of Russian Hebrews have come to this locality, most of whom have obtained employment in this industry. Although many of this race were tailors by trade, they entered the less skilled occupations in the shops and factories of Baltimore. very short time afterwards, or in 1895, the Lithuanians entered the industry. and they were followed, in 1900, by the Bohemians, Poles, Italians, and representatives of a few of the other races from AustriaHungary. Since 1905, the Russian llebrew, Lithuanian, and Italian have been the principal races from which the manufacturers have obtained their necessary supply of labor.

CHICAGO. The early history of clothing manufacturing establishments in Chicago differs from that of the establishments in Baltimore in that not only the Germans but the German Jews, Bohemians, a few Americans, and Poles were the first employees. About fifteen years ago the Scandinavians entered the industry and within a short time became very proficient. Following the Scandinavians were the Russian Hebrews, who were employed prior to either the Italians or Lithuanians. In recent years, however, the number of Russian Hebrews entering the industry has increased rapidly, and it is from this source that clothing manufacturing establishments have secured the greater proportion of employees.

NEW YORK Unlike the tailoring shops of Baltimore and Chicago, those in New York depended largely upon the Irish, who predominated from 1850 to 1888. The introduction of machines has made it possible to employ a less intelligent and less skilled force than when all work was done by hand. From 1865 to 1888 a few Swedes, and from 1880 to 1890 the Germans, entered the industry. Russian and Polish Hebrews first obtained employment in large numbers from 1890 to 1895, while the Italians, many of whom were employed as early as 1880, entered the industry in largely increased numbers in 1895, and are now supplanting the Russian Hebrews.

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