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HOURS OF WORK PER DAY AND WEEK IN THE INDUSTRY.

Ten hours per day and fifty-five hours per week constitute the regular working hours in the silk mills of this locality.

EFFECT OF IMPROVED MACHINERY UPON INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYEES.

The introduction of improved machinery has had the effect of decreasing the number of employees and at the same time increasing the output of the mill. An excellent illustration of this is the improved bobbin.” While its cost is nearly three times that of the old style, it has proved a great labor-saving device, for one girl can operate five of the new, where formerly she could operate but three of the old, style. Again, where certain processes were formerly separate, machines have been introduced where two and sometimes three are done at once.

EMPLOYERS' OPINIONS OF REÇENT IMMIGRANTS.

As regards the efficiency, progress, and adaptability the employers, in the order of their preference, place the representatives of the various races employed as follows: Poles, Slovaks, Magyars, and Lithuanians. The Poles are also considered the most industrious, the employers expressing no preference as between the others. As regards tractability, on the other hand, there is little difference noted between the Poles, Slovaks, Magyars, and Lithuanians.

CHAPTER IV.

SALIENT CHARACTERISTICS. Literacy-Conjugal condition-Visits abroad-Age classification of employees—[Text

Tables 90 to 95 and General Tables 62 to 66).

LITERACY. The degree of literacy which prevails among employees of the silk goods manufacturing industry in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania is set forth in the following table. It shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the percentage of employees who were able to read and percentage who were able to read and write. Table 90.--Per cent of employees who read and per cent who read and urite, by sex and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

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Of 4,309 persons reporting 3,743 are females and 566 are males. of this number 99.3 per cent can read and 98.7 per cent can both read and write. The percentage of males who can read and who can both read and write is slightly higher than that of females. Native whites born of native father and native-born of foreign father show 100 per cent of males who can read and who can both read and write, females in each instance showing slightly smaller proportions. Foreign-born show 99 per cent of males who can read and who can both read and write and 96.1 per cent of females who can read and only 92.3 per cent who can both read and write. Of the native-born of foreign father, those whose fathers were born in England and Wales show that all males and females are able to read and write. Persons whose fathers were born in AustriaHungary, Germany, Ireland, and Russia show 100 per cent of males who can read and write, the proportion of females in each instance being somewhat smaller; those of Russian parentage show the 48296° --VOL 11-11-8

107

smallest percentages, 98.8 per cent of females being able to read and 98.1 per cent being able to both read and write. Of the foreign-born both Germans and Poles show all males able to read and write. The proportion, however, of females is smaller, Germans showing a higher per cent who can read or both read and write than Poles.

CONJUGAL CONDITION, The following table shows, by sex and general nativity and race, the percentage of employees 20 years of age or over, who were in each conjugal condition. Table 91.-Per cent of employees 20 years of age or over in each conjugal condition, by

sex and general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) (This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

MALE.

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The above table shows that 12.3 per cent of 1,148 persons reporting are married and 3 per cent are widowed. Foreign-born show 29 per cent married and 6.3 per cent widowed as contrasted with 15.1 per cent married and 2.7 per cent widowed among the native-born whites of native father, while native-born of foreign father show 5.6 per cent married and 2.2 per cent widowed. Of the native-born of foreign father those whose fathers were born in Germany show a considerably higher percentage married and a slightly higher per cent widowed than persons whose fathers were born in Ireland. The table further shows the percentage of male employees who are married to be much higher than that of females, 56.9 per cent of the former being married as compared with 4.7 per cent of the latter,

the proportion widowed is practically the same for both males and 'females. Of the males whose fathers were born in Germany only

28.6 per cent are married as contrasted with 42.9 per cent married whose fathers were born in Ireland.

The following table divides the totals of the table immediately preceding and shows, by sex and age groups, and by general nativity and race, the percentage of employees who were in each conjugal condition: Table 92.—Per cent of employees in each conjugal condition, by ser, age groups, and

general nativity and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.) [This table includes only races with 200 or more persons reporting. The totals, however, are for all races.)

MALE.

29 to 29 years of age. 30 to 44 years of age.

45 years of age or

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Of a total of 1,148 individuals the greater proportion, or 84.7 per cent, are single, 12.3 per cent are married, and 3 per cent are widowed. A very small proportion of those from 20 to 29 years of age are married, while of those from 30 to 44 years of age very nearly 50 per cent are married. It is also noted that the proportion who are widowed is greatly increased in this period over the one preceding, and of those 45 years of age or over a very large proportion are married, 82.1 per cent, and the proportion who are widowed is slightly increased over that shown in the previous age group. A considerably larger proportion of the foreign-born than of nativeborn of foreign father or of native-born of native father from 20 to 29 are married. On the other hand slightly less than 60 per cent of both the foreign-born and the native-born of native father from 30 to 44 years of age are married, while the proportion of widowed is much higher in this than in the period preceding, and the proportion of foreign-born widowed is much higher than either of the other classes. Of the males 20 years of age or over, taking a total of 167 individuals, the greater proportion, or 56.9 per cent, are married. A greater proportion of the foreign-born and of the native-born of native father are married, while considerably less than 50 per cent of the native-born of foreign father are in that conjugal condition. Of the males from 20 to 29 years of age the native-born of foreign father show a considerably smaller proportion who are married than the foreign-born or the native-born of native father, while in the group from 30 to 44 years of age but little difference exists between the three classes. As regards the females, it is seen that of a total of 981 who are 20 years of age or over a large percentage are single and the proportion who are widowed, while small

, is very nearly as large as the proportion who are married. A very much higher proportion of the foreign-born are married and widowed than of either of the other classes. In the 20 to 29 year group the foreignborn, while showing a low percentage who are married, exceeds the other classes, and the proportions who are widowed are practically the same in all classes. The foreign-born from 30 to 44 years of age show much larger proportions who are married and who are widowed than the native-born of foreign father in the same age group.

A significant fact in connection with the conjugal condition of employees of foreign birth, especially those of recent immigration, is found in the location of the wives of the married males, whether in the United States or abroad. In the following table it will be seen that none of the foreign-born employees of the silk goods manufacturing industry in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania report wife abroad.

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