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Census was 5,291, our presentation for 1901, 5,438, an increase of 147. The increase in females over 16 was only 30. The Federal Census being 3,239, as against our presentation of 3,269, and there was but an increase of 21 in the number of children under 16, the total census showing 614, as against our presentation of 625.

The change in capital as relative to the value of the production places Pennsylvania in quite a different position in the comparison by States of the average amount of capital required for a product valued at $100, than has heretofore been assigned her, dropping from 51.83, as set forth in the Census Bulletin No. 221, to 39.23 per cent.

It might be well to state that capital as set forth in the Bureau's presentation, is the capital invested in realty, buildings, machinery, tools, and all implements used in manufacturing, together with capital necessary to the conduct of the business.

It will be seen that the average earnings of males over 16 for the 280 days of operation, was $403.11; females, $241.44, and children under 16, $123.18, and that the avarage daily wage for males over 16 was $1.44; females, 86 cents, and children under 16, 44 cents.

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RUBBER BOOTS AND SHOES.

Pennsylvania has but two rubber boot and shoe factories. These had a capital invested of $800,000 and employed 621 males, 412 females and thirty children.

The average yearly earnings of the males was $377.30, of the females $220.35 and of the children $105.33. Average daily wage, males, $1.32, females seventy-seven çents and children thirty-seven cents.

The value of the total production was $1,697,817.

AVERAGE DAILY WAGE.

On page 630 will be found a presentation of average daily wage as deducted from this report. It will be noticed that the presentation closes with the many industries that give employment, if not entirely to women and children, to a percentage so large as to make them of no value whatever as affecting the daily wage of males.

COMMUNICATIONS. Letters from manufacturers in reply to a communication from the Bureau touching upon a question of most vital interest to manufacturers, the labor question, constitute the last presentation of the report. The expressions are quite varied, and many of the letters are full of interest and well worth reading.

A few of the tanning industry letters take up the question of the

THE FEDERAL CENSUS.

In connection with Pennsylvania's industrial condition we submit herewith an advance bulletin of the Federal Census Department for 1900 of Pennsylvania manufactures, followed by an industrial census of twenty cities of the State, showing number of establishments, capital invested, wage earners, aggregate wages, value, etc., together with deductions of the Bureau.

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1900.

1890.

Per cent

of increase.

Number of establishments,
Capital,
Wage-earners, average number,
Total wages,
Miscellaneous expenses,
Cost of materials used,
Value of products, including custom work and repairing,

491
$11,996, 971

8,447 $3,150,970 1,310, 643 9,846,047 16,917,722

382 $6,977,091

6,293 $1,910, 882

532,875 5, 102, 911 8,876,565

28.5 71.9 59.5 64.9 146.0

92.9 90.9 1900.

[blocks in formation]

1890.

Per cent

of increase.

Number of establishments,
Capital,
Wage-earners, average number,
Total wages,
Miscellaneous expenses,
Cost of materials used,
Value of products, including custom work and repairing,

446
$8,749,516

7,362 $2,949,544

646,950 9, 402, 516 16,064,597

475 $6,716,074

6,314 $2,947, 291

428,757 5,432, 303 10,538, 444

6.1 30.3 16.6

0.1 50.9 73.1 52.4 1900.

[blocks in formation]

1890.

Per cent

of increase.

Number of establishments,
Capital,
Wage-earners, average number,
Total wages,
Miscellaneous expenses,
Cost of materials used,
Value of products, including custom work and repairing,

15,888
$476,591,792

246, 603 $111,902, 811

55,578, 272 326, 918, 805 603,587,392

18, 166 $375, 249,715

234,647 $113, 306, 173

39,615, 476 311, 645,804 577, 234, 446

*12.5 27.0 5.1 1.2 40.3 4.9 4.6 1900.

[blocks in formation]

1890.

Per cent

of increase.

Number of establishments,
Capital,
Wage-earners, average number,
Total wages,
Miscellaneous expenses,
Cost of materials used,
Value of products, including custom work and repairing,

438
$10,501,537

5, 977 $2,286, 676 1,142,358 5, 167, 777 10,758,348

270 $5,598, 139

4,141 $1,808, 226

578, 640 4,026,579 7,746,371

62.2 87.6 44.3 26.5 97.4 28.3 38.9

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