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CONTENTS

HEARING DATES

Pago

Wednesday, October 30, 1963.-

1

Thursday, October 31, 1963.

101

Wednesday, November 13, 1963..

151

STATEMENTS OF WITNESSES (BY ORGANIZATION OR

AFFILIATION)

Atomic Energy Commission:

Leighton, David T., Assistant Manager for Surface Ship Projects,

Naval Reactors, Division of Reactor Development.---

31, 125-128

Ramey, James T., Commissioner.

75, 85

Rickover, Vice Adm. Hyman G., Manager, Naval Reactors, Division

of Reactor Development.

21,

30, 40, 61-62, 71-79, 81-87, 94, 97, 99–100, 103, 108–109, 128

Seaborg, Dr. Glenn T., Chairman..

72–76, 79, 81, 84-85

Department of Defense:

Brown, Dr. Harold, Director, Defense Research and Engineering - 32-

42, 123, 131-149

McNamara, Robert S., Secretary--

152-196

Nitze, Paul H., Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security

Affairs).

98

Department of the Navy:

Connolly, Rear Adm. T. F., Director, Strike Warfare Division, Office

of the Chief of Naval Operations. 102-104, 107–125, 128-131, 146

De La Mater, Capt. S. T., Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.-- 108,

111-113, 115-117, 120–122

dePoix, Capt. Vincent P., former commanding officer of the U.S.S.

Enterprise

87–95, 97

Hayward, Vice Adm. John T., commander of the antisubmarine war-

fare force of the Pacific Fleet, and former commander of the first

nuclear task force.--

22, 49–68

Korth, Fred, Secretary of the Navy--

8–33, 40, 42-48, 56

McDonald, Adm. David L., Chief of Naval Operations.

21-

22, 30, 44–48, 53, 68–71, 85–87, 93, 98, 100

Peet, Capt. Raymond E., commanding officer of the U.S.S. Bainbridge- 95-98

Shaw, Milton, Office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research

and Development).

22, 29, 31, 117

Sonenshein, Capt. N., Bureau of Ships..

55, 71
Wakelin, Dr. James H., Assistant Secretary for Research and De-

velopment.-
Wilkinson, Capt. Eugene, former commanding officer of the U.S.S.
Long Beach..

87, 97

12

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL INSERTED IN THE RECORD

5

25

161

“Chairman Pastore Wants Defense To Consider Atomic Propulsion for

Aircraft Carrier,” JCAE press release dated October 11, 1963..
"Construction of the Attack Carrier in the Fiscal Year 1963 Shipbuilding

Program, memorandum from Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of

Defense, to the Secretary of the Navy, dated October 25, 1963.-
Excerpt from hearings before the Subcommittee on Department of Defense

Appropriations, March 6, 1962..
List of witnesses to appear at the hearings on nuclear versus conventional

propulsion for aircraft carriers, JCAE press release dated October 29,

1963.

Memorandum from the Secretary of the Na vy to the Secretary of Defense,

dated September 26, 1963, on the construction of the attack carrier in

fiscal year 1963 shipbuilding program.

Naval Research Advisory Committee, membership list.

Nuclear-powered carrier cost differential, table

“Nuclear Versus Conventional Aircraft Carrier Hearings Announced,"

JCAE press release dated October 23, 1963.-

6

CORRESPONDENCE INSERTED IN THE RECORD

Brown, Harold, Director of Defense Research and Engineering, DOD, to

Senator John O. Pastore, dated March 18, 1963, regarding the application Pago

of nuclear power for the propulsion of naval surface ships..

3

Gilpatric, Roswell, Deputy Secretary of Defense, to Senator John 0.

Pastore, dated October 11, 1963, denying reports that a decision has

been reached with respect to the type of propulsion to be used in the

aircraft carrier authorized for fiscal year 1963-

4

Hayward, Rear Adm. J. T., to Fred Korth, Secretary of the Navy, dated

January 2, 1963, stating that the military advantages of nuclear pro-

pulsion in surface ships more than outweigh their extra cost,

63

McGiffert, David E., assistant to the Secretary of Defense (Legislative

Affairs), to Senator John O. Pastore, dated October 25, 1963, enclosing a

DOD release directing the Navy to proceed immediately with con-

ventionally powered attack carrier..

118

McNamara, Robert S., Secretary of Defense, to Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg,

Chairman, AEC, dated February 2, 1963, advising him that DOD is re-

considering its decision to build CVA-67 as a conventionally fueled

ship---

81

Pastore, Senator John O., to Dr. Harold Brown, Director of Defense Re-

search and Engineering, DOD, dated October 22, 1963, with respect to

the assurance that a final decision had not been made concerning the

type of propulsion for naval surface ships.

5

Pastore, Senator John O., to Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense,

dated March 1, 1963, concerning the slow progress in the application of

nuclear power for propulsion of surface vessels of the Navy---

3

Pastore, Senator John O., to Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense,

dated October 9, 1963, on certain articles appearing in the press concern-

ing the results of various studies on nuclear propulsion for naval surface

vessels.

4

Piore, D. E. R., Chairman, Naval Research Advisory Committee, to Fred

Korth, dated December 18, 1962, urging, among other things, that all

future major combatant surface ships have nuclear powerplants---

11

Seaborg, Dr. Glenn T., Chairman, AÈC, to Robert S. McNamara, Secre-

tary of Defense, dated January 7, 1963, concerning a recent review by the

Commission of its development program in reactor technology applicable

to surface warships---

80

APPENDIXES

Appendix 1. “A Treatise on Nuclear Propulsion in Surface Ships,” dated

April 5, 1961.--

197

Appendix 2. Memorandum from Secretary of the Navy to the cre-

tary of Defense, dated March 30, 1962, on the nuclear propulsion de-

velopment program.

201

Appendix 3. Memorandum from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary

of Defense, dated January 23, 1963, on nuclear power for surface war-

ships.---

229

Appendix 4. Memorandum from the Secretary of Defense to the Secre-

tary of the Navy, dated February 22, 1963, on nuclear power for surface

warships.

230

Appendix 5. Memorandum from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secretary

of Defense, dated April 4, 1963, on nuclear power for surface warships.- 231

Appendix 6. Memorandum from the Secretary of Defense to the Secretary

of the Navy, dated April 20, 1963, on nuclear power for surface warships. 240

Appendix 7. Memorandum from the Secretary of Defense to the Secretary

of the Navy, dated October 9, 1963, on the construction of the attack

carrier in fiscal 1963 shipbuilding program.--

244

Appendix 8. Memorandum from the Secretary of the Navy to the Secre-

tary of Defense, dated October 10, 1963, on construction of the attack

carrier in fiscal 1963 shipbuilding program.

245

Appendix 9. Correspondence concerning construction costs of the Enter-

prise, Long Beach, and the Bainbridge---

246

Appendix 10. Article on nuclear ship propulsion.--

247

Appendix 11. Extract from statement of Secretary Korth before the

Senate Committee on Appropriations, February 28, 1962; and statement

of Admiral Anderson before the Armed Services Committee, February

8, 1962..

248

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[These hearings were held in executive session. Classified security

information was presented during the executive session. The hearing_record was then reviewed and specific items designated by the DOD and Navy Department as being classified information were deleted prior to publication.]

NUCLEAR PROPULSION FOR NAVAL SURFACE VESSELS 1

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 30, 1963
JOINT COMMITTEE ON ATOMIC ENERGY,
CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES,

Washington, D.C. The Joint Committee on Atomic Energy met, pursuant to call, at 10 a.m., in the committee room, the Capitol, Hon. John 0. Pastore (chairman) presiding.

Present: Senators John O. Pastore (presiding), Henry M. Jackson, George D. Aiken, and Wallace F. Bennett; Representatives Chet Holifield, Melvin Price, Thomas G. Morris, Craig Hosmer, William H. Bates, Jack Westland, and John B. Anderson.

Committee staff present: John T. Conway, executive director; Edward J. Bauser, assistant director;

George F. Murphy, professional staff member; Jack Newman, staff counsel; James B. Graham, technical adviser; and Jack Rosen, staff consultant.

Representatives of the Department of Defense: Hon. Paul H. Nitze, Assistant Secretary of Defense (International Security Affairs); Rear Adm. Carlton B. Jones, Chief, Navy Office of Legislative Affairs; Capt. E. R. Zumwalt, Jr., Director, Disarmament (Arms Control Section); Hon. Harold Brown, Director, Defense Research and Engineering; and Col. Grover K. Coe, Congressional Liaison Office.

Řepresentatives of the Department of the Navy: Hon. Fred Korth, Secretary of the Navy; Hon. James H. Wakelin, Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research and Development); Adm. David L. McDonald, Chief of Naval Operations; Vice Adm. Hyman G. Rickover, Assistant Chief for Nuclear Propulsion, Bureau of Ships; Vice Adm. John T. Hayward, commander, Antisubmarine Warfare Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet; Rear Adm. T. F. Connolly, Director, Strike Warfare Division, Office, Chief of Naval Operations; Capt. Vincent P. de Poix, duty under instruction at National War College (former commanding officer, U.S.S. Enterprise); Capt. Raymond E. Peet, commanding officer, U.S.S. Bainbridge; Capt. Eugene P. Wilkinson, Submarine Warfare Division, Office, Chief of Naval Operations, and former commanding officer, U.S.S. Long Beach; Capt. S. T. DeLaMater, Strike Warfare Division, Office, Chief of Naval Operations; Capt. N. Sonenshein, Bureau of Ships; Capt. E. L. Beach, Navy Program Planning Office, Office, Chief of Naval Operations; Capt. Isaac Kidd, administrative aide to Admiral McDonald; Capt. M. G. Bayne, naval aide to the Secretary of Navy; Capt. W. J. Moran,

1 The Joint Committee prepared a report on these hearings entitled, “Nuclear Propulsion for Naval Surface Vessels," December 1963 which was issued on December 22, 1963. 2 Mr. Nitze was appointed Secretary of the Navy on November 29, 1963.

1

naval aide to Assistant Secretary of Navy (Research and Development); Capt. S. E. Robbins, Director, Congressional Investigations, Office of Legislative Affairs; Comdr. R. O. Welander, Navy Program Planning Office, Office, Chief of Naval Operations; Comdr. J. E. Jenkins,

special assistant to Secretary of the Navy; Comdr. Walter E. Aymond, member of Admiral Hayward's staff; and Milton Shaw, Office of Assistant Secretary of Navy (Research and Development).

Representatives of the Atomic Energy Commission: Hon. Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, Hon. James T. Ramey, Hon. John G. Palfrey, Hon. Gerald F. Tape, Commissioners; Gen. A. R. Luedecke, General Manager; Vice Adm. Hyman G. Rickover, Manager, Naval Reactors, Division of Reactor Development; David T. Leighton, Assistant Manager for Surface Ship Projects, Naval Reactors, Division of Reactor Development; and Richard X. Donovan, special assistant to General Manager for Congressional Relations.

Chairmon PASTORE. I have called this meeting to obtain all the information that is available on plans to utilize nuclear power for the propulsion of naval surface vessels and in order that the Joint Committee can determine to what extent it should support in the future research and development work in this area. We also wish to ascertain how effective this program has been in the past and what there is about it, right or wrong, that led to the recent decision.

According to the information that I have received, the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Defense have spent approximately $400 million on research and development concerning the use of nuclear power in naval surface vessels. I also understand that there may be $50 to $60 million in the proposed budget for the next fiscal year for the continuation of this work, which is separate and distinct from the nuclear submarine program. Very soon the Joint Committee will have before it the proposed Atomic Energy Commission budget for this work. I want to be certain that the committee receives all of the basic information concerning status of this work and plans for utilizing the technology which has been developed for the propulsion of naval surface vessels before we act on the budget.

I informed the Department of Defense, by letter dated October 9, 1963, of my intention to hold this hearing and over a week ago set the date for this morning. I particularly was interested in reviewing the advantages of nuclear aircraft carrier vis-a-vis the conventional aircraft carrier in connection with the next one to be constructed. Accordingly, I was frankly surprised and somewhat disturbed by the sudden announcement last Friday afternoon, October 25-and this was hand delivered to this office on Friday some time after 5 p.m.-of the decision by the Secretary of Defense that it would be a conventional-powered ship, after I had been told repeatedly it was under study and no decision had been made.

I would like to insert in the record at this point the exchange of correspondence I had with the Department of Defense, starting with my letter of March 1, 1963, to the Secretary of Defense. I would also like to insert in the record copies of my press releases dated October 11, 23, and 29, 1963, publicly announcing this hearing:

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