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York, London, and Washington ; that the McLean Company has offices in New York, Baltimore, and Washington ; that the Saulsbury Publishing Company has a New York office at 305 Broadway, telephone Worth 2130, and a Cleveland office in the Schofield Building, telephone, Main, 5268. The superintendent of the Cleveland Telephone Company reports that he is unable to find any listing of the Saulsbury Publishing Company in the Directory issues covering the period between October, 1917, and February, 1918. The manager of the New York Telephone Company says that the subscriber for telephone service at 305 Broadway, telephone Worth, 2130, is the Davenport Development Company, which has had the service for a number of years. The manager of the Baltimore Telephone Company says that the addresses Rippel Building and 7 Clay Street are both the same location. Editor The WRITER.)

With this letter was enclosed the following order blank (a printed form, with the date “August 2, 1918,” the title of my poem,

“A Jewel-Decked Castle,” the figures “200," before "advance orders," and the prices " 50 cents" and " 40 cents" written in ) : BOOK REVIEW DEPARTMENT.

Date, August 2, 1918, WOMAN'S NATIONAL MAGAZINE,

Washington, D. C. Gentlemen :

I enclose $10 to pay for publishing review of my book “ A Jewel-Decked Castle," in your pub. lication for the term of three months, beginning with next issue, it being understood that the Woman's National Magazine will use its best judgment in the arrangement and wording of this review

to attract advance orders. When 200 advance orders are received you are to publish the book and pay me 75 per cent. of proceeds. Book to retail at $ .50 ; wholesale at $.40 per copy. Five copies of each issue of your magazine containing this review are to be sent to

on publication ( Author please suggest review desired and write same on back of this order ).

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THE MECHANISM OF THE NOVEL.

CHAPTER VI.

SETTING ( Continued ). Influential Setting

Characters as Creating or Choosing Their Surrounding Atmosphere.

Influential Setting. There is still another treatment of setting based upon a recognition of the scientific principle that environment moulds character and determines the course of human conduct. Such a treatment subserves the great artistic law of economy : description of nature and background do not exist for their own inherent beauty, nor solely for purposes of analogy or contrast with human emotion, but are an integral part of the story itself.

The Characters of Zane Grey. Most of the characters in Zane Grey's stirring tales of

adventure appear to be products of their surroundings. In “Desert Gold " Grey says of Yaqui the Indian : "Gale had never seen the Indian's face change its hard, red-bronze calm. It was the color and the flintiness and the character of the lava at his feet.”

Four American Novels. Montrose J. Moses places in the same category four American novels, Hawthorne's “The Scarlet Letter," Norris's “The Octopus," James Lane Allen's “The Reign of Law," and Ellen Glasgow's “The Deliverance." He declares that each one of these novels “impresses us with the undoubted fact that the situations, as well as the spiritual and physical development of the characters, are dependent on the soil which nurtured them."

Hawthorne and Influential Environment. The importance which Hawthorne attaches

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again, August 2, 1918, the Woman's National Magazine wrote to me as follows :

WOMAN'S NATIONAL MAGAZINE Published at the

In the interests of National Capital

the American Woman Washington, D. C.

August 2, 1918. Allan A. McCorkendale,

Caledonia, N. Y. Dear Miss McCorkendale :

In some late correspondence with a Baltimore book publishing company we made inquiry regarding the publication of your book and was informed : " it was returned, author unable to accept our publishing offer."

We could probably use your book as a premium if it were published. It is our plan, however, to publish sooner or

later our

own premium books so that we will not have to be continually splitting' the profits with other book publishers. To do this we propose to run advance announcements of these new books in our Book Review Department and publish each new book just as soon as we receive sufficient advance orders to cover the initial expense of the production. From the data to hand on your book we would be pleased to arrange for its publication under this plan.

We propose to devote considerable space to the description of the plan and of the books in our Book Department and urge our readers to send in advance orders for these new volumes, of course adding some attractive combination or subscription inducement. As we figure our circulation will reach about 75,000 copies monthly in the course of a few months our book an. nouncement ought to pull thousands of advance orders. Your book announced under this plan will receive its share and when the proper number come in we will put it out at no cost to you whatever and pay you a 20 per cent. royalty on all copies sold.

Under this arrangement you get three months' publicity in our magazine, at much less than regular advertising space cost for similar matter. Our regular rate to publishers is $20 for three months. As we may handle your book through this plan we are willing to insert the review for only $10 for three months. We will send you five copies of each issue so you can distribute them among your friends or

as you wish.

A coupon will be provided on the Book Review page so that our readers can easily sign this, tear it out and mail to us. The title of your book is certainly attractive and with the proper description ( which you may write on back of order blank ) we think this review will show up attractively.

We are going to run our first book announce. ments in the next issue. Many well known books will be included, and your review will be placed in the same list with the works by

“popular" authors so to make the whole thing doubly effective. People reading more books than ever now and we anticipate a big success under this plan.

Please sign the order blank, write a brief review for our guidance on the reverse side, and send to us with your remittance of $10 so that we can be sure of getting your review in the next issue which will go to press in about ten days.

Very truly yours,
WOMAN'S NATIONAL MAGAZINE

A. V, Hitchcock

Associate Editor. [“Ought to," again, is the phrase used by Mr. Hitchcock, who declares that the announcement in the Woman's National Magazine

which he figures will reach a circılation of about 75,000 copies in the course of a few months ought to pull thousands of advance orders. The Woman's National Magazine is a sixteen-page paper, 10X14 inches in size, printed on ordinary news print paper, subscription price fifty cents a year. Page 15 of “Vol. II., No. 3" is largely devoted to Reviews of New Books," in style similar to this :JIM GOODMAN, THE ORPHAN,* by MRS.

EMILY SHAW. Wherein is depicted the life of a good man, in his struggle for the higher things. Net $.50

(3) Some fifty books are noticed in this way. On the page is printed an Order Blank, which reads : “ Send me, when ready,

copies of . for which I agree to pay $

when notified of shipment,” with this note at the top : “Readers are asked to fill out the conpon below when ordering any book described on this page. Those marked (*) are not yet published, and it is advisable to send your order in at once so you will receive the book soon after publication. Send no money with your order. When we mail you the book we will send the bill for amount due." If the publishers of the Woman's National Magazine get ten dollars for each of these notices, their profits are likely to compare favorably with those the authors of the books mentioned in the "Reviews ” will get from the resulting sale.

It appears from the printed letterheads that the Cosmos Magazine has offices in New

York, London, and Washington ; that the McLean Company has offices in New York, Baltimore, and Washington ; that the Saulsbury Publishing Company has a New York office at 305 Broadway, telephone Worth 2130, and a Cleveland office in the Schofield Building, telephone, Main, 5268. The superintendent of the Cleveland Telephone Company reports that he is unable to find any listing of the Saulsbury Publishing Company in the Directory issues covering the period between October, 1917, and February, 1918. The manager of the New York Telephone Company says that the subscriber for telephone service at 305 Broadway, telephone Worth, 2130, is the Davenport Development Company, which has had the service for a number of years. The manager of the Baltimore Telephone Company says that the addresses Rippel Building and 7 Clay Street are both the same location. Editor THE WRITER.)

With this letter was enclosed the following order blank (a printed form, with the date “August 2, 1918,” the title of my poem,

“A Jewel-Decked Castle,” the figures “ 200," before "advance orders,” and the prices " 50 cents " and " 40 cents" written in ) : BOOK REVIEW DEPARTMENT.

Date, August 2, 1918, WOMAN'S NATIONAL MAGAZINE,

Washington, D. C. Gentlemen :

I enclose $ro to pay for publishing review of my book “ A Jewel-Decked Castle,” in your pub. lication for the term of three months, beginning with next issue, it being understood that the Woman's National Magazine will use its best judgment in the arrangement and wording of this review so

attract advance orders. When 200 advance orders are received you are to publish the book and pay me 75 per cent. of proceeds. Book to retail at $.50 ; wholesale at $.40 per copy. Five copies of each issue of your magazine containing this review are to be sent to me on publication (Author please suggest review desired and write same on back of this order ).

Name..

as

to

Address...

State.. Once again I declined. CALEDONIA, N. Y. Allan McCorkendale.

THE MECHANISM OF THE NOVEL.

CHAPTER VI.

SETTING ( Continued ). Influential Setting Characters as Creating or Choosing Their Surrounding

Atmosphere.

Influential Setting. There is still another treatment of setting based upon a recognition of the scientific principle that environment moulds character and determines the course of human conduct. Such a treatment subserves the great artistic law of economy : description of nature and background do not exist for their own inherent beauty, nor solely for purposes of analogy or contrast with human emotion, but are an integral part of the story itself.

The Characters of Zane Grey. Most of the characters in Zane Grey's stirring tales of

adventure appear to be products of their surroundings. In “ Desert Gold ” Grey says of Yaqui the Indian : “Gale had never seen the Indian's face change its hard, red-bronze calm. It was the color and the Alintiness and the character of the lava at his feet."

Four American Novels. Montrose J. Moses places in the same category four American novels, Hawthorne's “The Scarlet Letter," Norris's “The Octopus," James Lane Allen's “The Reign of Law," and Ellen Glasgow's “The Deliverance.” He declares that each one of these novels “impresses us with the undoubted fact that the situations, as well as the spiritual and physical development of the characters, are dependent on the soil which nurtured them."

Hawthorne and Influential Environment. The importance which Hawthorne attaches to

scene

environment is manifest at the very beginning of “The Scarlet Letter."

The women who were now standing about the prison-door stood within less than half a century of the period when the man-like Elizabeth had been the not altogether unsuitable representative of the sex. They were her countrywomen ; and the beef and ale of their native land, with a moral diet not a whit more refined, entered largely into their composition. The bright morning sun, therefore, shone on broad shoulders and well-developed busts, and on round and ruddy cheeks, that had ripened in the far-off island, and had hardly yet grown paler or thinner in the atmosphere of New England,

The Forest in The Scarlet Letter." However deeply our sympathies may be stirred by the recital of Hester's punishment and Arthur Dimmesdale's secret agony, we never for a moment lose sight of that dense forest background that throws its gloom over every page of the novel, and affects alike the minds of the characters and the trend of events.

Chillingworth and the Forest. – Roger Chillingworth appears almost magically “out of the vast and dismal forest” bringing with him the “knowledge of the properties of native herbs and roots” which he has acquired in its midst.

Hester recognizes Chillingworth's affinity with that weird and sombre background, and at the conclusion of their interview in the prison inquires : “Art thou like the Black Man that haunts the forest round about us ? Hast thou enticed me into a bond that will prove the ruin of my soul ?"

Hester Prynne and the Forest. The meeting of Hester: and Arthur Dimmesdale occurs in the forest. Hester accompanied by Pearl has set out along the woodland path to intercept the minister on his return from a visit to the Apostle Eliot. The effect of her immediate surroundings on Hester's thought and spirits is shown in the following paragraph:

The road, after the two wayfarers had crossed from the peninsula to the mainland, was no other than a footpath. It straggled onward into the mystery of the primeval forest. This hemmed it in so narrowly, and stood so black and dense on either side, and disclosed such imperfect glimpses of the sky above, that, to Hester's mind, it imaged not amiss the

moral wilderness in which she had so long been wandering. The day was chill and sombre. Overhead was a gray expanse of cloud, slightly stirred, however, by a breeze ; so that a gleam of flickering sunshine might now and then be seen at its solitary play along the path. This ficting cheerfulness was always at the farther extremity of some long vista through the forest. The sportive sunlight.

feebly sportive, at best, in the predominant pensiveness of the day and

withdrew itself as they came. nigh, and left the spots where it had danced the drearier, because they had hoped to find them bright.

Pearl and the Forest. Unlike her mother, Pearl is influenced by the sunlight, not the gloom, of the forest.

Pearl set forth, at a great pace, and, as Hester smiled to perceive, did actually catch the sunshine, and stood laughing in the midst of it, all brightened by its splendor, and scintillating with the vivacity excited by rapid motion. The light lingered about the lonely child, as if glad of such a playmate, until her mother had drawn almost nigh enough to step into the magic circle too.

Arthur Dimmesdale and the Forest. Το. Arthur Dimmesdale the forest is a place of refuge and relaxation. Its effect upon him is apparent to Hester as she watches his approach.

She beheld the minister advancing along the path, entirely alone, and leaning on a staff which he had cut by the wayside. He looked haggard and feeble, and betrayed a nerveless despondency in his air, which had never so remarkably characterized him in his walks about the settlement, nor in any other situation where he deemed himself liable to notice. Here it was wofully visible, in this intense seclusion of the forest, which of itself would have been a heavy trial to the spirits. There was a listlessness in his gait ; as if he saw no reason for taking one step. farther, nor felt any desire to do so, but would have been glad, could he be glad of anything, to fling himself down at the root of the nearest tree, and lie there passive, forevermore. The leaves might bestrew him, and the soil gradually accumulate and form a little hillock over his frame, no matter whether there were life in it

Death was too definite an object to be wished for, or avoided.

Characters Interpreted by a Setting They Have Created. Conversely, a character may be pictured as himself affecting the setting in

Or no.

which he is placed. In Winston Churchill's

The Inside of the Cup" Alison Parr is shown in the midst of a garden which she has designed and which because of that fact reflects her own pagan propensities.

Arnold Bennett in “ The Price of Love" introduces Mrs. Maldon to us as she sits in a room she has herself furnished, and the description of the appointments of this room pictures, table, carpet, sofa, window-curtains, tapers, etc. is also a description (inferentially at least ) of the woman who has selected and arranged them. Setting as the Cause of Events.

The use of setting as a factor in shaping events is well illustrated in " The Marble Faun." Donatello, who is literally the product of his sylvan surroundings, meets Miriam in the grounds of the Villa Borghese. The ancient grove casts its spell upon him, and he in turn imparts " the influence of his elastic temperament" to Miriam. For a time they frisk and frolic like a veritable faun and dryad, and at last are impelled to lead that strange dance, which "seemed the realization of one of those basreliefs where a dance of nymphs, satyrs, or bacchanals is twined around the circle of an antique vase."

Influential Setting of Inanimate Objects. The scaffold in “The Scarlet Letter" is described as exercising complete dominion over Hester Prynne.

Arthur Dimmesdale is preaching his lası sermon.

During all this time, Hester stood, statue-like, at the foot of the scaffold. If the minister's voice had not kept her there, there would nevertheless have been an inevitable magnetism in that spot, whence she dated the first hour of her life of ignominy. There was a sense within her, too ill-defined to be made a thought, but weighing heavily on her mind, that her whole orb of life, both before and after, was connected with this spot, as with the one point that gave it unity.

In like manner Hugo represents a sort of kinship as existing between the hunchback and Notre Dame.

Thus, by little and little, his spirit expanded in harmony with the cathedral ; there he lived, there he slept ; scarcely ever leaving it, and, being perpetually sub

ject to its mysterious influence, he came at last to resemble it, to be incrusted with it, to form, as it were, an integral part of it. His salient angles dove-tailed, if we may be allowed the expression, into the receding angles of the building, so that he seemed to be not merely its inhabitant, but to have taken its form and pressure. Between the ancient church and him there were an instinctive sympathy so profound, so many magnetic affinities, that he stuck to it in some measure as the tortoise to its shell. The Sea-Mews in The Toilers of the Sea."

Gilliatt, leading his primitive existence on the barren reef, is strangely influenced by the sea-mews that share his bleak and desolate abode.

Atmosphere. - The perfect adaptation of characters and situations to setting and period imparts to the novel an enveloping or pervasive influence which is termed atmosphere." This influence is not a definite, tangible element of structure, but may perhaps be more accurately defined as a prevailing tone, which is the result of harmonious adjustment.

The atmosphere of historic Rome permeates the pages of The Marble Faun," and as early as the third paragraph of the novel Hawthorne not only confesses his desire to create that atmosphere, but explains the importance of setting as a factor in the process.

We glance hastily at these things – at this bright sky, and those blue, distant mountains, and at the ruins, Etruscan, Roman, Christian, venerable with a threefold antiquity, and at the company of world-famous statues in the salon – in the hope of putting the reader into that state of feeling which is experienced oftenest at Rome. It is a vague sense of ponderous remembrances ; a perception of such weight and density in a bygone life, of which this spot was the centre, that the present moment is pressed down or crowded out, and our individual affairs and interests are but half as real here as elsewhere. Viewed through this medium, our narrative into which are woven some airy and unsubstantial threads, intermixed with others, twisted out of the commonest stuff of human existence may seem not widely different from the texture of all our lives.

Summary: Nature and other surroundings, animate or inanimate, may be treated (1) independently of characters or plot, ( 2 )

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