The Quantum Theory of Light

Pirmais vāks
OUP Oxford, 2000. gada 7. sept. - 448 lappuses
This third edition, like its two predecessors, provides a detailed account of the basic theory needed to understand the properties of light and its interactions with atoms, in particular the many nonclassical effects that have now been observed in quantum-optical experiments. The earlier chapters describe the quantum mechanics of various optical processes, leading from the classical representation of the electromagnetic field to the quantum theory of light. The later chapters develop the theoretical descriptions of some of the key experiments in quantum optics. Over half of the material in this third edition is new. It includes topics that have come into prominence over the last two decades, such as the beamsplitter theory, squeezed light, two-photon interference, balanced homodyne detection, travelling-wave attenuation and amplification, quantum jumps, and the ranges of nonliner optical processes important in the generation of nonclassical light. The book is written as a textbook, with the treatment as a whole appropriate for graduate or postgraduate students, while earlier chapters are also suitable for final- year undergraduates. Over 100 problems help to intensify the understanding of the material presented.
 

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Saturs

Plancks radiation law and the Einstein coefficients
3
11 Density of field modes in a cavity
4
12 Quantization of the field energy
7
13 Plancks law
10
14 Fluctuations in photon number
13
15 Einsteins A and B coefficients
16
16 Characteristics of the three Einstein transitions
19
17 Optical excitation of twolevel atoms
23
55 The squeezed vacuum
201
56 Squeezed coherent states
206
57 Beamsplitter inputoutput relations
212
58 Singlephoton input
216
59 Arbitrary singlearm input
221
510 Nonclassical light
227
References
231
Multimode and continuousmode quantum optics
233

18 Theory of optical attenuation
27
optical amplification
31
110 The laser
35
111 Radiation pressure
40
References
44
Quantum mechanics of the atomradiation interaction
46
22 Form of the interaction Hamiltonian
49
23 Expressions for the Einstein coefficients
52
24 The Dirac deltafunction and Fermis golden rule
57
25 Radiative broadening and linear susceptibility
60
26 Doppler broadening and composite lineshape
65
27 The optical Bloch equations
68
28 Power broadening
72
29 Collision broadening
76
210 Bloch equations and rate equations
79
References
81
Classical theory of optical fluctuations and coherence
82
31 Models of chaotic light sources
83
32 The lossless optical beamsplitter
88
33 The MachZehnder interferometer
91
34 Degree of firstorder coherence
94
35 Interference fringes and frequency spectra
100
36 Intensity fluctuations of chaotic light
103
37 Degree of secondorder coherence
107
38 The BrownTwiss interferometer
114
39 Semiclassical theory of optical detection
117
References
123
Quantization of the radiation field
125
41 Potential theory for the classical electromagnetic field
126
42 The free classical field
130
43 The quantummechanical harmonic oscillator
133
44 Quantization of the electromagnetic field
139
45 Canonical commutation relation
144
46 Pure states and statistical mixtures
148
47 Timedevelopment of quantumoptical systems
153
48 Interaction of the quantized field with atoms
155
49 Second quantization of the atomic Hamiltonian
162
410 Photon absorption and emission rates
168
411 The photon intensity operator
173
412 Quantum degrees of first and secondorder coherence
176
References
178
Singlemode quantum optics
180
51 Singlemode field operators
181
52 Number states
184
53 Coherent states
190
54 Chaotic light
199
61 Multimode states
234
62 Continuousmode field operators
237
63 Number states
242
64 Coherent states
245
photon bunching and antibunching
248
66 The MachZehnder interferometer
251
67 Photon pair states
253
68 Twophoton interference
260
69 Squeezed light
265
610 Quantum theory of direct detection
271
611 Homodyne detection
278
612 The electromagnetic vacuum
284
References
286
Optical generation attenuation and amplification
288
71 Singlemode photon rate equations
289
72 Solutions for fixed atomic populations
292
73 Singlemode laser theory
297
74 Fluctuations in laser light
304
75 Travellingwave attenuation
310
76 Travellingwave amplification
319
77 Dynamics of the atomradiation system
324
78 The sourcefield expression
328
79 Emission by a driven atom
331
References
337
Resonance fluorescence and light scattering
339
81 The scattering crosssection
340
82 Resonance fluorescence
344
83 Weak incident beam
348
84 Singleatom resonance fluorescence
352
85 Quantum jumps
360
86 Twophoton cascade emission
365
87 The KramersHeisenberg formula
371
88 Elastic Rayleigh scattering
374
89 Inelastic Raman scattering
378
References
381
Nonlinear quantum optics
383
92 Electromagnetic field quantization in media
389
93 Secondharmonic generation
393
94 Parametric downconversion
398
95 Parametric amplification
404
96 Selfphase modulation
411
97 Singlebeam twophoton absorption
417
98 Conclusion
425
References
426
Index
429
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1. lappuse - The field excitations are then limited to an infinite discrete set of spatial modes determined by the boundary conditions at the cavity walls. The allowed standingwave spatial variations of the electromagnetic field in the cavity are identical in the classical and quantum theories but the time dependences of each mode are governed by classical and quantum harmonic-oscillator equations, respectively.

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